full cone vs hollow cone nozzles

Axial Vs. Tangential Nozzles

Lechler categorizes its full cone vs hollow cone nozzles into two different groups; axial and tangential. Both are used in a variety of applications but what is the difference?

Lets explore each one starting with the Full Cone nozzle group...

Axial Full Cone


The most common full cone is axial, this design creates an even spray over a circular area. Spray formation, liquid distribution, and shaping of droplets are generated by a revolving motion of the liquid, which is achieved with the aid of swirl inserts inside the free cross-section of the nozzle. The axial full cone is available with low and high flow rates in a wide range of spray angles and is perfect for the following applications:

  • Cleaning and washing
  • Surface spraying
  • Water treatment
  • Spraying over packings

View all Axial Full Cone Nozzles

Axial full cone nozzle with higher flow rate

Tangential Full Cone


Unlike axial, tangential full cone nozzles are not designed with a swirl insert and are therefore less prone to clogging. The full cone spray pattern is produced by grooves milled into the bottom of the nozzle, which provide a defined deviation of the liquid flow to the mixing chamber’s center. This chamber creates a uniform area distribution of the atomized liquid so that when it exits the orifice the spray is evenly dispersed. Tangential full cone nozzles are designed for the following applications:

  • Scrubber towers
  • Chemical reactors
  • Chemical injection

View all Tangential Full Cone Nozzles


Axial Hollow Cone


Axial Hollow cone nozzles are designed with spiral grooves in the swirl insert which create a liquid whirlwind effect. This whirlwind effect generates small uniform droplets that can be absorbed faster, cool quicker and moisturize better for applications such as:

  • Cooling and cleaning of gas
  • Absorption processes
  • Dust control
  • Product dampening
  • Oil spraying
  • Air humidification

View all Axial Hollow Cone Nozzles

Axial Flow Hollow Cone Nozzle

Tangential Hollow Cone


The tangential hollow cone is designed with an off center inlet combined with a 90° turn. These internal features create a whirling rotation of liquid within the nozzle chamber resulting in smaller droplets and even distribution. Tangential hollow cone nozzles do not include a swirl insert making them less prone to clogging. Typical applications for tangential hollow cone nozzles include:

  • Air humidification
  • Spray pond cooling
  • Foam control
  • Cooling


View all Tangential Hollow Cone Nozzles

Contact our spray experts for assistance in selecting the nozzle for your application.